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how did eamon de valera die

how did eamon de valera die

In 1959 de Valera agreed to stand as a candidate for the presidency. After sixteen years in power, Fianna Fáil lost the 1948 election. In July 1957, in response to the Border Campaign (IRA), Part II of the Offences Against the State Act was re-activated and he ordered the internment without trial of Republican suspects, an action which did much to end the IRA's campaign. [18] De Valera was throughout his life portrayed as a deeply religious man, and in death asked to be buried in a religious habit. De Valera baulked at the agreement. It was there, at 11.15 am on 5 December 1921, that the decision was made to recommend the Treaty to Dáil Éireann; the Treaty was finally signed by the delegates after further negotiations which closed at 02:20 on 6 December 1921. He took over as President of the Executive Council from W. T. Cosgrave and later Taoiseach, with the passing of the Constitution of Ireland in 1937. He extended these endeavours to encompass the larger Irish public. De Valera’s father, who was Spanish, died when the boy was two. A constitutional referendum to ratify this was defeated by the people. In the 1948 election, de Valera lost the outright majority he had enjoyed since 1933. Increasing retaliation by both sides enabled de Valera to develop his program of austere national self-sufficiency in an Irish-speaking Ireland while building up industries behind protective tariffs. By September 1939, a general European war was imminent. His supporters claim he showed leadership skills and a capacity for meticulous planning. (1882–1975). Research Professor of Modern Irish History, University College, Cork, National University of Ireland, 1946–63. [84], Returning to Ireland during the Mother and Child Scheme crisis that racked the First Inter-Party Government, de Valera kept silent as Leader of the Opposition, preferring to stay aloof from the controversy. The old Executive Council had to be dissolved and reformed en bloc if its President wanted to remove a Minister. 25, 1940", "Flann and me and his greatest story never told", 1911 Census return of Edward (sic) de Valera and household, Eamon de Valera's "India and Ireland" in the South Asian American Digital Archive (SAADA). A terse paragraph in the Irish national dailies on 3 May 1945 started the avalanche of international protest. De Valera was court-martialled, convicted, and sentenced to death, but the sentence was immediately commuted to penal servitude for life. O'Duffy backed down when the National Guard was declared an illegal organisation and the march was banned. His detractors claim he suffered a nervous breakdown during the Rising. Sinéad de Valera died on 7 January 1975, at the age of 96, the day before what would have been the de Valeras' sixty-fifth wedding anniversary. His applications for professorships in colleges of the National University of Ireland were unsuccessful, but he obtained a part-time appointment at Maynooth and also taught mathematics at various Dublin schools, including Castleknock College (1910–1911; under the name Edward de Valera) and Belvedere College. Eamon … On being told that de Valera was unimportant, he commuted the court-martial's death sentence to life imprisonment. He escaped from Lincoln Gaol, England in February 1919. He resigned in 1959 upon his election as President of Ireland. Forces commanded by de Valera occupied Boland's Mill[22] on Grand Canal Street in Dublin. During the Irish Civil War that followed, he fought against those whose views he had previously shared. On a speaking tour of the more republican province of Munster, starting on 17 March 1922, de Valera made controversial speeches at Carrick on Suir, Lismore, Dungarvan and Waterford, saying that: "If the Treaty were accepted, [by the electorate] the fight for freedom would still go on, and the Irish people, instead of fighting foreign soldiers, will have to fight the Irish soldiers of an Irish government set up by Irishmen." Éamon de Valera served until 1959, his son, Vivion de Valera, was also a Teachta Dála (TD). It initially looked as if the National Labour Party would give Fianna Fáil enough support to stay in office as a minority government, but National Labour insisted on a formal coalition agreement, something de Valera was unwilling to concede. He was president of the Council of the League on his first appearance at the league in Geneva, Switzerland, in 1932 and, in a speech that made a worldwide impression, appealed for genuine adherence by its members to the principles of the covenant of the league. On 8 September 1922, he met in secret with Richard Mulcahy in Dublin to try to halt the fighting. De Valera and the anti-Treaty TDs formed a "republican government" on 25 October 1922 from anti-Treaty TDs to "be temporarily the Supreme Executive of the Republic and the State, until such time as the elected Parliament of the Republic can freely assemble, or the people being rid of external aggression are at liberty to decide freely how they are to be governed". [95] At his retirement in 1973 at the age of 90, he was the oldest head of state in the world. He would serve as President of Ireland from 1959 to 1973, two full terms in office. Soon afterwards, de Valera resigned from Sinn Féin and seriously considered leaving politics. ), the anti-partition articles needlessly antagonised Unionists in, similarly, the recognition of the "special position" of the Catholic Church was inconsistent with the identity and aspirations of northern Protestants (leading to its, the affirmation of Irish as the national and primary official language neither reflected contemporary realities nor led to the language's revival, though the King was removed from the text of the constitution, he retained a leading role in the state's foreign affairs, and the legal position of the President of Ireland was accordingly, elements of Catholic social teaching incorporated into the text, such as the articles on the role of women, the family and divorce, were inconsistent both with the practice of the Protestant minority and with contemporary liberal opinion, De Valera's portrait illustrated the front cover of 25 March 1940 issue of, Stephen Mullan in the 2016 TV mini-series, Girvin, Brian. A new economic policy emerged with the First Programme for Economic Expansion. Following the Truce of July 1921 that ended the war, de Valera went to see Prime Minister David Lloyd George in London on 14 July. De Valera did not visit the American embassy following the death of Roosevelt, as David Gray, the American Ambassador said he would not receive de Valera. His academic attainments also inspired wide respect; he became chancellor of the National University of Ireland in 1921. His active political career spanned the years 1913-1973 from when he first joined the Irish Volunteers until his retirement as President of Ireland. [7] His parents were reportedly married on 18 September 1881 at St Patrick's Church in Jersey City, New Jersey, but archivists have not located any marriage certificate or any birth, baptismal, or death certificate information for anyone called Juan Vivion de Valera (nor for "de Valeros", an alternative spelling). These included: Criticisms of some of the above constitutional reforms include that: As Bew concludes, in the constitution of 1937, de Valera was "trying to placate left-wing Republicans with national phrases and pious people with expressly Catholic bits [and] patriarchal Catholicism."[68]. [99] His wife, Sinéad de Valera, four years his senior, had died the previous January, on the eve of their 65th wedding anniversary. Is Eamon de Valera gay or straight? The UK was trying to bring the US into the war in Europe at the time, and the Irish American vote was important in US politics. However, one of his colleagues, Seán Lemass, convinced de Valera to found a new republican party. Eamon de Valera, original name Edward de Valera, (born Oct. 14, 1882, New York, N.Y., U.S.—died Aug. 29, 1975, Dublin, Ire. Under de Valera's leadership, Fianna Fáil won further general elections in 1937, 1938, 1943, and 1944. 362) order which was passed in August 1945. After imprisonment in Dartmoor, Maidstone and Lewes prisons, de Valera and his comrades were released under an amnesty in June 1917. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. iiisdp349. De Valera, Hitler & the visit of condolence May 1945 Published in 20th-century / Contemporary History, Devalera & Fianna Fail, Features, Issue 3 (Autumn 1997), The Emergency, Volume 5. These men were not loyal to de Valera and initially were not even supported by the executive of the anti-Treaty IRA. The constitution contained reforms and symbols intended to assert Irish sovereignty. De Valera responded in kind with levies on British imports. De Valera's opponents won the election and civil war broke out shortly afterwards in late June 1922. Ring in the new year with a Britannica Membership,, History Learning Site - Biography of Eamonn de Valera, Eamon de Valera - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Eamon de Valera - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Ireland's dominant political personality for many decades, de Valera received numerous honours. [90], On 16 September 1953, de Valera met British Prime Minister Winston Churchill for the first and only time, at 10 Downing Street. One aspect of de Valera's legacy is that since the foundation of the state, a de Valera has nearly always served in Dáil Éireann. From there, de Valera went on to be at the forefront of Irish politics until the turn of the 1960s. Notably, he could advise the President to dismiss Ministers individually – advice that the President was bound to follow by convention. Having effected these changes, a boundary commission came into place to redraw the Irish border. ", "Emergency Powers (362) Order, 1945 —Motion to Annual", "Emergency powers (no. In January 2017, his grave was vandalised,[100] with the man responsible pleading guilty to criminal damage and receiving a suspended prison sentence. A year later, eligibility for maternity and child services and public hospital services was extended to approximately 85% of the population.[62]. [78] De Valera denounced reports of Bergen-Belsen concentration camp as "anti-national propaganda"; according to Bew, this was not out of disbelief but rather because the Holocaust undermined the main assumption underlying Irish neutrality: moral equivalence between the Allies and the Axis. However, a vote to accept the Free State Constitution (contingent on the abolition of the Oath of Allegiance) narrowly failed. It is generally agreed by historians that whatever his motives, it was a mistake for de Valera not to have travelled to London.[40]. [8][9] As a child, he was known as "Eddie" or "Eddy". Éamon de Valera died from pneumonia and heart failure in Linden Convalescent Home, Blackrock, Dublin, on 29 August 1975, aged 92. This organisation was an obstacle to de Valera's power as it supported Cumann na nGaedheal and provided stewards for their meetings. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. Many people state that de Valera is largely responsible for founding the modern Irish state. He remained a lifelong devotee of rugby, attending international matches even towards the end of his life when he was nearly blind. In 1885, after the death of his Spanish father, he was sent to live with his Irish mother's family in Country Limerick. The Constitution was approved in a plebiscite on 1 July 1937 and came into force on 29 December 1937. [56], He at once initiated steps to fulfill his election promises to abolish the oath and withhold land annuities owed to the UK for loans provided under the Irish Land Acts and agreed as part of the 1921 Treaty. In 1910 he married Sinéad Ní Fhlannagáin. [17], There were occasions when de Valera seriously contemplated the religious life like his half-brother, Fr. He tried to convince Sinn Féin to accept this new line. De Valera was criticised for ending up as co-owner of one of Ireland's most influential group of newspapers, Irish Press Newspapers, funded by numerous small investors who received no dividend for decades. Cumann na nGaedheal meetings were frequently disrupted by Fianna Fáil supporters following the publication of the article: No Free Speech for Traitors by Peadar O'Donnell, an IRA member. On 21 January 1919, 27 Sinn Féin MPs (the rest were imprisoned or impaired), calling themselves Teachtaí Dála (TDs), assembled in the Mansion House in Dublin and formed an Irish parliament, known as Dáil Éireann (translatable into English as the Assembly of Ireland). [5][6] He was born at the Nursery and Child's Hospital, Lexington Avenue, a home for destitute orphans and abandoned children. His faith in historians as trustworthy guardians of his reputation was not absolute. His opponents claimed that he had refused to join the negotiations because he knew what the outcome would be and did not wish to receive the blame. When did Eamon de Valera die? General Richard Mulcahy also spoke against the Order, disagreeing with the way in which it applied to enlisted men and not to officers. In 1937 he made his country a “sovereign” state, renamed Ireland, or Éire. The return of the ports was of particular significance, since it ensured Irish neutrality during the coming Second World War. Eamon de Valera has largely been forgotten by most of the world outside of the British Isles. + + + Brian was the 4th of 7 children of Sinéad (Ni Fhlannagáin) & Éamon de Valera. He graduated from the Royal University of Ireland in 1904 and became a mathematics teacher. Eamon De Valera. De Valera, though he held no military position, backed the anti-Treaty IRA or "Irregulars" and said that he was re-enlisting in the IRA as an ordinary volunteer. Newspaper clippings about Éamon de Valera, President of the League of Nations Assembly, Chancellor of the National University of Ireland, Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe, List of current Sinn Féin elected representatives, His Majesty's Declaration of Abdication Act 1936, Executive Authority (External Relations) Act 1936, His Majesty King Edward the Eighth's Abdication Act, 1937, Duke and Duchess of Windsor's 1937 tour of Germany,Éamon_de_Valera&oldid=1001884242, Presidents of the Assembly of the League of Nations, Alumni of the Royal University of Ireland, Fellows of the Royal Society (Statute 12), Members of the Irish Republican Brotherhood, Members of the House of Commons of Northern Ireland 1921–1925, Members of the House of Commons of Northern Ireland 1925–1929, Members of the House of Commons of Northern Ireland 1933–1938, Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for County Clare constituencies (1801–1922), Members of the Parliament of the United Kingdom for County Mayo constituencies (1801–1922), People convicted of treason against the United Kingdom, People of the Irish Civil War (Anti-Treaty side), Politicians imprisoned during the Irish revolutionary period, Presidents of the Executive Council of the Irish Free State, Prisoners sentenced to death by the United Kingdom, Members of the House of Commons of Northern Ireland for County Down constituencies, Chancellors of the National University of Ireland, Pages containing links to subscription-only content, Short description is different from Wikidata, All Wikipedia articles written in Hiberno-English, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with PLWABN identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Himself (President of the Executive Council), a claim that the national territory was the entire island of Ireland, thereby challenging Britain's. Eamonn de Valera played a key role in Ireland’s recent history. His and Fianna Fáil's popularity was short-lived, however; his government introduced severe, deflationary budgetary and economic policies in 1952, causing a political backlash that cost Fianna Fáil several seats in the Dáil in by-elections of 1953 and early 1954. [94], As President of Ireland, de Valera received many state visits, including the 1963 visit of U.S. President John F. Kennedy. On 24 April 1916, the Easter Rising began. [10], According to Coll, Juan Vivion died in 1885 leaving Coll and her child in poor circumstances. [22] Third, when Lt-Gen Sir John Maxwell reviewed his case he said, "Who is he? This launched the Anglo-Irish Trade War when the UK in retaliation imposed economic sanctions against Irish exports. Éamon Ó Cuív, his grandson, is currently a member of the Dáil while his granddaughter, Síle de Valera is a former TD. He does not seem to have been involved in any fighting and had little or no influence with the military republican leadership – headed by IRA Chief of Staff, Liam Lynch. On that date, de Valera's post automatically became that of Taoiseach which was a considerably more powerful office. [4] He has been characterised by a stern, unbending, devious demeanour. De Valera was one of the leaders in the failed 1916 Easter Uprising. The Earl of Longford and Thomas P. O'Neill (1970), p. 301. harvnb error: no target: CITEREFConstitution_of_Ireland1937 (, "Anglo-Irish Relations, 1939–41: A Study in Multilateral Diplomacy and Military Restraint" in. The ensuing "Economic War" lasted until 1938.[57][58]. On 2 September, de Valera advised Dáil Éireann that neutrality was the best policy for the country. On 10 July 1917, he was elected a member of parliament (MP) for East Clare (the constituency which he represented until 1959) in a by-election caused by the death of the previous incumbent Willie Redmond, brother of the Irish Party leader John Redmond who had died fighting in World War I. To strengthen his position against the opposition in the Dáil and Seanad, de Valera directed the Governor-General to call a snap election in January 1933 and de Valera's party won 77 seats, giving Fianna Fáil an overall majority. Press Photographs of Eamon de Valera, taken from the Papers of Eamon de Valera held in UCD Archives. He then, along with Cathal Brugha and Austin Stack, brought pressure to bear on Michael Collins to undertake a journey to the United States himself, on the pretext that only he could take up where de Valera had left off. He opposed secret societies, but this was the only way he could be guaranteed full information on plans for the Rising.[21]. He was brought up by his grandmother Elizabeth Coll, her son Patrick and her daughter Hannie, in County Li… [86] In Brisbane, Australia, at the request of the influential and long serving Archbishop Duhig de Valera laid the foundation stone for the new High School building at Marist Brothers College Rosalie. [26] The British reportedly, however, considered de Valera's forces the best-trained and best-led among the rebels. At the general election of 1957, de Valera, then in his seventy-fifth year, won an absolute majority of nine seats, the greatest number he had ever secured. Costello was duly nominated, consigning de Valera to opposition for the first time in 16 years. [42], After the Treaty was narrowly ratified by 64 to 57, de Valera and a large minority of Sinn Féin TDs left Dáil Éireann. [103] De Valera rejected, however, demands by organisations like Maria Duce that Roman Catholicism be made the state religion of Ireland, just as he rejected demands by the Irish Christian Front for the Irish Free State to support Francisco Franco during the Spanish Civil War. Some criticised its picture of de Valera as a pedantic and unreal character who could not possibly have won the respect of his colleagues. In June he was elected president, and he was reelected in 1966. In this way he would be pursuing republican policies and lessening the popularity of republican violence and the IRA. Author of. He won the 1959 presidential election on 17 June 1959 and resigned as Taoiseach, Leader of Fianna Fáil and a TD for Clare, six days later, handing over power to Seán Lemass. The agitations for Irish sel… I wonder would he be likely to make trouble in the future?" In 1968, he was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS),[3] a recognition of his lifelong interest in mathematics. He withheld payment of the land annuities, and an “economic war” resulted. She had emigrated from Bruree to America two years previous to his birth. No clearly defined difference now existed between the opposing parties in face of rising prices, continued emigration, and a backward agriculture. Dublin, Ireland; Recently Passed Away Celebrities and Famous People. [70][71] The British did not inform the Government of Northern Ireland that they had made the offer to the Irish government, and De Valera's rejection was not publicised until 1970. In the hope of securing international recognition, Seán T. O'Kelly was sent as envoy to Paris to present the Irish case to the Peace Conference convened by the great powers at the end of World War I. He added clauses to the new Constitution of Ireland (1937) to "guard with special care the institution of marriage" and prohibit divorce. In March 1923, de Valera attended the meeting of the IRA Army Executive to decide on the future of the war. [15] In 1904, he graduated in mathematics from the Royal University of Ireland. – Finance", Electoral (Amendment) (No. De Valera resumed office until 1954, when he appealed unsuccessfully for a fresh mandate, and Costello formed his second interparty ministry. Why did Eamon de Valera die? Thomas Wheelwright, but ultimately he did not pursue this vocation. He was elected Chancellor of the National University of Ireland in 1921, holding the post until his death. [34] Of this, $500,000 was devoted to the American presidential campaign in 1920, helping him gain wider public support there. In the anti-British Easter Rising in Dublin (1916), de Valera commanded an occupied building and was the last commander to surrender. He was in the foreground of Home Rule for Ireland vanguard known as Irish Volunteers. De Valera noticed a door in the exercise yard at the back of the prison that lead to the outside; if he could get a key he could escape. The organisation was formed to oppose the Ulster Volunteers and ensure the enactment of the Irish Parliamentary Party's Third Home Rule Act won by its leader John Redmond. De Valera, in his capacity as Prime Minister of His Majesty's Government in the Irish Free State, wrote in July 1936 to King Edward VIII in London indicating that he planned to introduce a new constitution, the central part of which was to be the creation of an office de Valera provisionally intended to call President of Saorstát Éireann (Irish: Uachtarán Shaorstát Éireann), which would replace the Governor-General. This march struck parallels with Mussolini's march on Rome (1922), in which he had created the image of having toppled the democratic government in Rome. He made many attempts to influence their views and to adjust and refine the historical record whenever he felt this portrayed him, his allies or his cause inaccurately or unfavourably to his mind, these could often mean the same thing. [11] Éamon was taken to Ireland by his uncle Ned at the age of two. (, Post–war period: Taoiseach/Opposition leader, Dáil Éireann – Volume 3–19 December 1921 debate on treaty, Barry, Frank, and Mary E. Daly. [80] The legislation in question was the Emergency Powers (No. Éamon de Valera died just under eight months later, on 29 August 1975, aged 92. This made possible de Valera’s proclamation in September 1939, upon the outbreak of World War II, that Ireland would remain neutral and would resist attack from any quarter. Be on the lookout for your Britannica newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your inbox. He was not successful in enrolling at two colleges in Limerick, but was accepted at Blackrock College, Dublin, at the instigation of his local curate. Though nominally head of the anti-Treatyites, de Valera had little influence. The couple are buried together, along … However, he was an imposing figure in Irish history. The couple are buried together, along with their son Brian, at Dublin's Glasnevin Cemetery. 4129, citing Glasnevin Cemetery, Dublin, County Dublin, Ireland ; Maintained by Find A Grave . De Valera had been re-arrested in May 1918 and imprisoned and so could not attend the January session of the Dáil. Éamon De Valera, the 3 rd President of Ireland, 2 nd Taoiseach and a key figure in the battle for Irish independence in the 1916 Easter Rising, died on this day in 1975.. A divisive figure, De Valera nevertheless played an integral part in securing Irish freedom from Britain a century ago. I am aware he signed the book of condolence at the German embassy when Hitler died… It’s just a pity you’re aware of something that never happened! August 29, 1975. Where is Eamon de Valera from? [93], De Valera's final term as Taoiseach also saw the passage of numerous reforms in health and welfare. He returned to Ireland after being jailed in England and became one of the leading political figures of the War of Independence. De Valera was then sent to his mother’s family in County Limerick, Ire., and studied at the local national school and at Blackrock College, Dublin; he graduated from the Royal University, Dublin, and became a teacher of mathematics and an ardent supporter of the Irish-language revival. Previous offices under earlier constitutions, Member of the Northern Ireland Parliament, England's difficulty is Ireland's opportunity, Fifth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, Fifteenth Amendment of the Constitution of Ireland, 6th Executive Council of the Irish Free State, 7th Executive Council of the Irish Free State, 8th Executive Council of the Irish Free State, List of members of the Oireachtas imprisoned during the Irish revolutionary period, List of people on the postage stamps of Ireland, UK Census 1901 held in the National Archives in the Republic of Ireland, "Eamon de Valera 14 October 1882 -- 29 August 1975", Biographical Memoirs of Fellows of the Royal Society, "Mystery of 1916 leader and New Yorker Eamon de Valera's birth", "De Valera's begrudging attitude to 'The Big Fellow, "Eamon De Valera pleads Irish cause at Fenway Park – The Boston Globe", "Pedro Albizu Campos: El Ultimo Libertador de America", "Dáil Éireann – Volume 2 – Vote of thanks to the people of America", "Dáil Éireann – Volume 1 – Ministerial Motions. – Presidential election campaign in USA", "Dáil Éireann – Volume 1 – Debates on Reports. De Valera most certainly would have been challenged by Collins at every turn and if there was ever a man who could cut de Valera down to political-size, it … [92], Like the first coalition government, the second lasted only three years. His constitution also recognised "the special position" of the Catholic Church and recognised other denominations including the Church of Ireland and Jewish congregations, while guaranteeing the religious freedom of all citizens. As a T.D. 7 JANUARY 1975 - DEATH OF SINÉAD DE VALERA at the age of 96, the da... y before what would have been the de Valera’s sixty-fifth wedding anniversary. The Ministry of Dáil Éireann was formed, under the leadership of the Príomh Aire (also called President of Dáil Éireann) Cathal Brugha. In 1924, he was arrested in Newry for "illegally entering Northern Ireland" and held in solitary confinement for a month in Crumlin Road Gaol, Belfast. Eamon de Valera Birthday and Date of Death. He attended mass-meetings at Xavier College, and addressed the assembled Melbourne Celtic Club. [50] He was re-elected President in 1966, aged 84, until 2013 a world record for the oldest elected head of state. [69] In June 1940, to encourage the neutral Irish state to join with the Allies, Winston Churchill indicated to de Valera that the United Kingdom would push for Irish unity, but believing that Churchill could not deliver, de Valera declined the offer. The dominant figure in Irish politics for over 40 years despite, or perhaps because of, his aloof, ascetic personality. [20] He was sworn by Thomas MacDonagh into the oath-bound Irish Republican Brotherhood, which secretly controlled the central executive of the Volunteers. In April 1938, de Valera and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Anglo-Irish Trade Agreement, lifting all duties imposed during the previous five years and ending British use of the Treaty Ports it had retained in accordance with the Anglo-Irish Treaty. [54], In the 1932 general election Fianna Fáil secured 72 seats and became the largest party in the Dáil, although without a majority. [107] [91], It was during this period that de Valera's eyesight began to deteriorate and he was forced to spend several months in the Netherlands, where he had six operations. Released in 1917 but arrested again and deported in May 1918 to England, where he was imprisoned, de Valera was acclaimed by the Irish as the chief survivor of the uprising and in October 1917 was elected president of the revolutionist Sinn Féin (“We Ourselves” or “Ourselves Alone”) party, which won three-fourths of all the Irish constituencies in December 1918. On December, 1 st , 1944, de Valera employed the English hangman, Albert Pierrepoint, to … Brian de Valera predeceased his parents. 1932", Eamon de Valera, the eternal revolutionary, "Letter from Joseph P. Walshe to Michael McDunphy (Dublin) enclosing a memorandum on the draft Irish constitution (Secret)", "The Irish Free State (1922–1937): Saorstát Éireann".

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