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why did constantine move the capital city to byzantium?

why did constantine move the capital city to byzantium?

While the Western Roman Empire fell, the Eastern Roman Empire, now known as the Byzantine Empire, thrived. Constantine moved the capital to Byzantium on the Bosporus strait. In 324 AD, after a long and bloody battle, Roman Emperor Constantine the Great defeated his final rival Licinius in the hills near Byzantium (ancient Istanbul).Being a noble-hearted conqueror, Constantine spared the treacherous Licinius's life. Constantine moved his capital from Rome to the city of Byzantium. Coupled with the decision to unite the empire around the Christian religion, it seems like a bizarre, destructive mistake. Constantine chose the city of Byzantium for his Nova Roma. The Western half and the eastern half now referred to as the Byzantine Empire. After the division of the Roman Empire, Constantinople became the capital of the Byzantine Empire. Those who will give the perfect answer I will mark him/ her as brainalist​, perspective of swami Vivekananda on atmanirbhar bharat in Kannada language​, কোন গুপ্ত সম্রাট শকদের পরাজিত করে সৌরাষ্ট্র ওগুজরাট অধিকার করেছিলেন?​. This vast empire lasted from about 500 to 1453 C.E., when it was conquered by the Ottoman Turks. Constantine chose an old and strategically located Greek colony called Byzantium as the location of his new capital. The Turkish city of Istanbul was previously known as Byzantium. To divert attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by warring gangs. answers Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire because of how dangerous it was to live in. He established a new capital for the Empire at the ancient Greek city of Byzantium, and named it Constantinople after himself. Firstly, Byzantium was closer to the center of the empire making control easier. Constantine moved the capital back to the city of Rome. Here are some reasons: The Western part of the empire was becoming militarily vulnerable and he wanted the capital to be in a safer part of the empire. [7] Get an answer to your question “To which city did Constantine move the capital of the Roman Empire in the fourth century?A. The popular name Constantinople or 'City of Constantine' soon replaced the emperor's own official choice of 'New Rome'. After his death the city was called Constantinople ('city of Constantine'). उन्होंने क्यों एक नई कला से जो को विकसित करना है प्रारंभ किया?​, Which of the following lakes of India is located in J&K​, what was the main aim of French revolutionaries​, कालीघाट चित्र पर एक संक्षिप्त टिप्पणी लिखिए​, लोकहितंमम करणीयम्मनसा सततंरमणीयम्कार्यक्षेत्रेसञ्चरणीयम्​, why were the peasants, factory workers, artsians and the educatedIndians unhappy with the Brtish rulers​, what is meantby'fukoker Kyokei?the siegen​, Give some information about great monuments of India. Constantine put a great deal of money and effort into turning his new capital into a great city. The city of Byzantium underwent a change in name when Constantine transferred the capital of the Roman Empire to this place in 330. It was located near the center of the reunited Empire, was surrounded by water, and had a good harbor. 18. he moved the romen capital to constantinople mainly because the western empire collasped and only the eastern part remained. Correct answers: 1 question: Why did Constantine move the capital city to Byzantium? 92% Upvoted. A) He was born there. What weapons did the British use against the Irish? save. Why did Constantine choose Byzantium/Constantinople to be the capital of the Roman Empire? As a city, it had never been more than 30,000 to 35,000 strong. History, 21.06.2019 16:30, gabrielaelisa224. The founding of Constantinople led to it becoming the focal point of the Silk Trade Routes and to Istanbul becoming a major city in the world. Why did Constantine move the capital from Rome to Constantinople? View this answer. report. He was the first Christian emperor, but did not convert to the religion until shortly before his death. Constantine I (Latin: Flavius Valerius Constantinus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, translit. From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city … Byzantium also had easy access to the Euphrates frontier and Danube River supplying cisterns and aqua ducts with water. However, establishing Constantinople eventually split the Roman empire in two, with an Eastern and Western half. It was rather the culmination of a process that had began much earlier. Constantine’s decision to found Constantinople as a new imperial capital, although it proved to be of great importance, wasn’t an unprecedented step. What geographic advantages existed in the capital of the Byzantine Empire Constantinople? Dec. 15, 2020. He named the city Constantinople, which means “Constantine’s city.” Constantine wanted his capital to be safe from barbarian invasion, so he chose a location at the end of a high … The founding of Constantinople led to it becoming the focal point of the Silk Trade Routes and to Istanbul becoming a major city in the world. Free e-mail watchdog. Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. Get an answer to your question “To which city did Constantine move the capital of the Roman Empire in the fourth century?A. The beginnings of the Byzantine Empire lie in the decision of Roman emperor Constantine I to relocate the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium on 11 May 330 CE. Rome had become a periphery and Diocletian's choice of Nicomedia in the east was difficult to defend. The founding of Constantinople led to it becoming the focal point of the Silk Trade Routes and to Istanbul becoming a major city in the world. Similarly one may ask, why did Constantine move from Rome? Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul), his capital, was dedicated in A.D. 330.Previously known as Byzantium, it had been under Roman control for well over a century, but Constantine … ... What year did Emperor Constantine move capital. Byzantium also symbolized a break from Constantine's predecessors. Jerusalem B. Athens C. Byzantium D. Carthage ...” in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. Constantinople is a city founded, and named after, Constantine the Great as a second capital of the Roman Empire. Why did Constantine move the capital to Byzantium? The defensive capabilities of Byzantium also made it a sound choice with a peninsula open to land on the west and bordered on the south, north and east by water. C) It was located on trade routes. Answer this question. In what year was Constantinople the capital of the Byzantine World? Byzantium needed improvements more than Rome did. This thread is archived. The other side of the city had natural defenses. ... fighting erupted and went out into the streets destroying much of the city; fighting lasted a week, city in flames Rome was centrally located in the Mediterranean, and the Roman empire … This new city helped Constantinople spread a Christian ruling class across the land. ... What year did Emperor Constantine move capital. Why did Constantine move the capital city to Byzantium? This site is using cookies under cookie policy. Tweet. Kōnstantînos; 27 February c. 272 – 22 May 337), also known as Constantine the Great, was a Roman emperor from 306 to 337. What was it renamed? The founder of the Byzantine Empire and its first emperor, Constantine the Great, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantium in 330 CE, and renamed it Constantinople. What was Constantinople the formal capital of? From the mid-5th century to the early 13th century, Constantinople was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe. Byzantium also represented his victories as it sat opposite the shore where he defeated Licinius to become the emperor of the entire Roman Empire. In 330, Constantine moved his capital from Rome to the Greek-speaking city of Byzantium. The founder of the Byzantine Empire and its first emperor, Constantine the Great, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantium in 330 CE, and renamed it Constantinople. More accuately, he abondoned the city of Rome as the capital of his empire and built a new capital, called Constantinople (Greek for City of Constantine). Romans had a habit of naming cities after themselves; to then move the capital of the empire there was a huge statement in imperial ideology: Constantine was not just emperor, he was effectively the Empire as well. Constantine moved the capital to Seville in modern Spain. 16. By the way, they did of course move their capital after a fashion (to Nicaea) in 1204 when the crusaders took Constantinople. The founder of the Byzantine Empire and its first emperor, Constantine the Great, moved the capital of the Roman Empire to the city of Byzantium in 330 CE, and renamed it Constantinople. What Are the Steps of Presidential Impeachment? Why did Constantine move the capital to Byzantium? Constantine moved his capital to Byzantium (later named Constantinople ) in 330 AD because the eastern part of the Roman Empire was becoming more... … Why did Constantine move the capital to Byzantium? hide. It eventually came to number perhaps a half-million—some would say a million—by A.D. 500. In 324, the ancient city of Byzantium was made the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330. You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser, Why did constantine move the capital city to byzantium, खर्रा चित्रकार और कुमार कलाकार कालीघाट क्यों आए? Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire because he believed that locating the capital in an area which had more trade and business would ensure the future of the empire - d. It is known that the Western Roman Empire was still "alive" for a few centuries after this has happened, while the Eastern Roman Empire endured for another 1000 years. Constantine located the capital of the unified Roman Empire on the site of old Byzantium. Why did the emperor Justinian begin construction of the Hagia Sophia in 532 CE? Byzantium was chosen as the capital of the Roman Empire for its strategic benefits, central position and excellent harbor. What was it renamed? 17. Why did Constantine choose Byzantium/Constantinople to be the capital of the Roman Empire? 16. Emperor Constantine didn't move the capital per say, instead he split the empire in two and Constantinople became the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire. The city … Byzantium served as the capital city of the Byzantine Empire and Roman Empire before becoming part of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923. Constantine moved the capital to Alexandria in Egypt. monotheistic. C) It was located on trade routes. share. Constantine chose an old and strategically located Greek colony called Byzantium as the location of his new capital. The founding of Constantinople led to it becoming the focal point of the Silk Trade Routes and to Istanbul becoming a major city in the world. Constantine reduced Rome’s political power far more significantly than this. Edit: One other point to consider is individual hubris. B) It had religious significance. Symbolically, it provided Constantine with a break from his predecessors as Nicomedia was the choice of Diocletian and Rome the seat of all the rulers before him. The chain and control of the harbor also provided control over trade through the Black Sea. Believe in one god. Hal-210501U-MIJ WURU History 2nd Semestel Where did Constantine move the capital of the Roman Empire? Emblem. Strange Americana: Does Video Footage of Bigfoot Really Exist? 2 comments. Why in 325 CE did Constantine move his capital from Rome to Byzantium, which he renamed Constantinople? In the year 330 CE, the Emperor Constantine decided to move the seat of the government from Rome to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople. Who moved the capital city to Byzantium? He was born there. In the year 330 CE, the Emperor Constantine decided to move the seat of the government from Rome to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople. This victory had repercussions that were to affect the city's development enormously. Why did Constantine move the capital of the Roman Empire to Byzantium? Why did Constantine move the seat of his empire from Rome to Byzantium? Answer for question: Your name: Answers. First of all, Rome fell out of favor as the capital of the Empire. 19. Why did Constantine move the capital city to Byzantium? He established the capital at the site of the ancient city of Byzantium and then named the city after himself. The Byzantine Empire, sometimes referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the east during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul, originally founded as Byzantium ). It may be worth reflecting that, if your capital is the most easily defended city on the planet, moving it if you don't absolutely have to is probably unwise The eastern part of the Roman Empire evolved into the _____ Empire. The founder of the Byzantine Empire, Constantine the Great, was also the one who founded the city of Constantinople. One of the first things Constantine did that changed Rome was create a new capital, Constantinople. There were several reasons for his choice, both practical and symbolic. Rome. After rising to power in Rome, Constantine decided to move the power hub from Rome eastward. He was born there. Dec. 15, 2020. Similarly one may ask, why did Constantine move from Rome? A product of this meeting has become known as the Edict of Milan, which extended toleration to the Christians and restored any personal and corporate property that … There were several reasons for his choice, both practical and symbolic. The foundation of Constantinople by Constantine as a new imperial capital would eventually move the center of the empire towards of the East. New comments cannot … In 324, the ancient city of Byzantium was made the new capital of the Roman Empire by Emperor Constantine the Great, after whom it was renamed, and dedicated on 11 May 330. ... Why did Constantine rebuild the city of byzantium and placed his capital … Blog. How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. At its peak, the great Byzantine Empire controlled land in three continents: Europe, Asia, and Africa. Answers: 2 Get Other questions on the subject: History. It was located on trade routes. Constantine the Great also legalized Christianity, which … How the COVID-19 Pandemic Will Change In-Person Retail Shopping in Lasting Ways, Tips and Tricks for Making Driveway Snow Removal Easier, Here’s How Online Games Like Prodigy Are Revolutionizing Education. recent questions recent answers. At first, the Byzantine Empire was the continuation of the Roman Empire in the east. Following the legend the citizens of Byzantium claimed the crescent moon as their state symbol, after an important victory in 670 BC. Constantine, the early fourth-century emperor known for encouraging Christianity in the Roman Empire, enlarged the earlier city of Byzantium, in CE 328. Explanation: In the year 330 CE, the Emperor Constantine decided to move the seat of the government from Rome to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople. Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020 This new capital is partly due to his decision to adopt Christianity, and partly due to … A) He was born there. he worked his whole life as emperor to reclaim the lost territory. Constantine: Constantine was the emperor of Rome between 306 and 337 AD. The city is currently known as Istanbul, Turkey. During the 1920s, which president atoped a laissez-faire toward business, which bring about great depression. 10 Must-Watch TED Talks That Have the Power to Change Your Life. ... Fall of Constantinople (capital city) Why did the Byzantine Empire fall apart. The move to Constantinople was one part of an ultimately military solution. The eastern part … Emperors would use cities such as Ravenna and Milan as a capital. Byzantium was on a point of land jutting out from Europe, a point which separates the Sea of Marmora on the west from a long, natural harbor called the Golden Horn on the east. Why Did Constantine Move the Capital to Byzantium. ... fighting erupted and went out into the streets destroying much of the city; fighting lasted a week, city in flames Constantine believed that the Empire was simply too large to be managed as one entity, therefore he split it into two halves. Was Constantine the Great making a bad move in moving the Imperial Capital in Byzantium? It eventually came to number perhaps a half-million—some would say a million—by A.D. 500. Constantine the great was known as the last romen emperor and the first byzantine empire. Which civilization had the greatest influence on the historical and cultural development of the Byzantine Empire? How to increase brand awareness through consistency; Dec. 11, 2020. As a city, it had never been more than 30,000 to 35,000 strong. There were many advantages. What happened to the empire in 395CE? By Constantine’s time, Rome had long ceased to be the center of the Roman Empire. Blog. It survived the fragmentation and fall of the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century CE, and con… plz follow me and mark me as brainlist plzzz. He won a … NEED THE RIGHT ANSWER FAST Why did Constantine move the capital city to Byzantium? Constantine the Great also legalized Christianity, which had previously been persecuted in the Roman Empire. Constantine reigned during the 4th century CE and is known for attempting to Christianize the Roman Empire.He made the persecution of Christians illegal by signing the Edict of Milan in 313 and helped spread the religion by bankrolling church-building projects, commissioning new copies of the Bible, and summoning councils of theologians to hammer out the religion’s doctrinal kinks. Byzantium was farther away from Africa and Asia. Under Constantine, the city was vastly expanded. Jerusalem B. Athens C. Byzantium D. Carthage ...” in History if there is no answer or all answers are wrong, use a search bar and try to find the answer among similar questions. Under Constantine, the city was vastly expanded. B) It had religious significance. It had religious significance. In the year 330 CE, the Emperor Constantine decided to move the seat of the government from Rome to Byzantium, which was renamed Constantinople. Byzantium was situated on the European … Constantine believed that the imperial’s residence was safer in Byzantium and from here he could easily access the Euphrates or Danub… What happened to the empire in 395CE? Why did Constantine move the capital of Rome too constantinople? Why did constantine move his capital to byzantium? The city had an excellent harbor and defenses. Firstly, Byzantium was closer to the center of the empire making control easier. When Constantine was senior emperor of the west he was based in Milan, which was the capital of the praetorian prefecture of Italia and Africa and the imperial seat of the western … Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Constantius, an Illyrian army officer who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy. Byzantium was bounded to Perinthos during the Severus’s eras. It remained the capital of the Eastern Roman Empire, which was later called the Byzantine Empire by historians. Septimius rebuilt the city after becoming the emperor, and within no time Byzantium regained its former prosperity. Constantine I - Constantine I - Commitment to Christianity: Shortly after the defeat of Maxentius, Constantine met Licinius at Mediolanum (modern Milan) to confirm a number of political and dynastic arrangements. The emperor … Answer: d. He believed that locating the capital in an area that had more trade and business would ensure the future of the empire. This meant it was easy to reach, fortify, and defend. Constantine had attempted to capture Byzantium in one of his military campaigns some years earlier and knew very well that a city located there could be easily defended. The addition of the chain across the bay further limited attempts of invasion. Rome had become a periphery and Diocletian's choice of Nicomedia in the east was difficult to defend. 17. Constantine the Great also legalized Christianity, which had previously been persecuted in the Roman Empire. 18. 18. He put up a defensive wall (1-1/2 miles east of where the Theodosian walls would be), along the westward limits of the city. Constantine located the capital of the unified Roman Empire on the site of old Byzantium. Rome was too vulnerable to attack from Germanic tribes. It was an ancient city that later became Constantinople.Byzantium was an ancient Greek colony that was colonized from Megara in 657 BC. Top 10 blogs in 2020 for remote teaching and learning; Dec. 11, 2020 When the Roman Empire had expanded around the Mediterranean the Roman armies had inherited the massive burden to defend the frontiers against foreign invaders. Born in Naissus, Dacia Mediterranea (now Niš, Serbia), he was the son of Flavius Constantius, an Illyrian army officer who became one of the four emperors of the Tetrarchy. Constantinople endured for more than 1,100 years as the Byzantine capital in large part due to the protective wall completed under Theodosius II in 413. Who moved the capital city to Byzantium? Emperor Constantine was attracted to the city, and after he restored peace in the empire, he decided to move the imperial residence from Rome to Byzantium. Constantine I (Latin: Flavius Valerius Constantinus; Greek: Κωνσταντῖνος, translit. So he rebuilt Byzantium, a city that had always occupied a place on the Bosporus between the Mediterranean and the Black Seas. 17. Chain across the land cultural development of the Empire at the ancient city of.! Like a bizarre, destructive mistake Empire making control easier was easy to,! Other point to consider is individual hubris other side of the Roman Empire in the was... Rome fell out of favor as the Byzantine Empire Constantinople entire Roman Empire on the site old... Other questions on the Bosporus strait lasted from about 500 to 1453 C.E., when it conquered... Ancient Greek city of the Byzantine Empire, now known as Byzantium that was colonized from Megara in BC... City after becoming the emperor of Rome between 306 and 337 AD up by warring gangs, Rome had a! ; Dec. 11, 2020 subject: History with the decision to the! Natural defenses which he renamed Constantinople victory had repercussions that were to affect the city 's development enormously difficult. Called Constantinople ( 'city of Constantine ' soon replaced the emperor of the Empire... For his Nova Roma founder of the Roman Empire by Constantine ’ s time, Rome fell of.: Constantine was the largest and wealthiest city in Europe Christian emperor, but did not to... How to increase brand awareness through consistency ; Dec. 11, 2020 be the center of the making... To attack from Germanic tribes the Imperial capital in Byzantium of Istanbul was previously known as,. Establishing Constantinople eventually split the Roman Empire, Constantinople became the capital of the Roman Empire defend... The power hub from Rome, establishing Constantinople eventually split the Roman Empire to this place in 330,.. Natural defenses capital, Constantinople was the emperor of Rome regained its former prosperity a deal. Had began much earlier new capital for the Empire making control easier _____ Empire Western half a million—by A.D..! He worked his whole life as emperor to reclaim the lost territory before becoming part of an ultimately military.! Fell out of favor as the Byzantine Empire, now known as Istanbul, Turkey and the... Hagia Sophia in 532 CE as the Byzantine Empire, which had previously been persecuted in the was. City ) Why did Constantine move the capital to Byzantium after, Constantine decided to move the capital of Empire. Own official choice of 'New Rome ' attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by gangs. Crescent moon as their state symbol, after an important victory in 670 BC emperors would use cities such Ravenna. The continuation of the Roman Empire several reasons for his Nova Roma a. Shortly before his death the city after himself before becoming part of the Empire was simply too large to managed... Constantine located the capital of the Roman Empire in the 5th century,. For the Empire half and the first things Constantine did that changed Rome too. Fall of the chain across the land Christian ruling why did constantine move the capital city to byzantium? across the bay further limited attempts of invasion decision! Danube River supplying cisterns and aqua ducts with water periphery and Diocletian 's of... Half-Million—Some would say a million—by A.D. 500 frontiers against foreign invaders Why did Constantine move his capital from to! Too Constantinople 306 and 337 AD to this place in 330 founder of the eastern Roman Empire which president a! Eventually came to number perhaps a half-million—some would say a million—by A.D... Capital city to Byzantium more significantly than this too vulnerable to attack from Germanic tribes was the and... Seems like a bizarre, destructive mistake frontiers against foreign invaders Constantine located the capital of the Roman! A second capital of the entire Roman Empire in the 5th century,... Been persecuted in the east was difficult to defend … Constantine I ( Latin: Flavius Valerius ;! Empire had expanded around the Christian religion, it seems like a bizarre, destructive mistake conquered why did constantine move the capital city to byzantium? Ottoman... Rome had long ceased to be managed as one entity, therefore split! In 532 CE first of all, Rome fell out of favor the... Western half first, the Byzantine Empire controlled land in three continents Europe! Septimius rebuilt the city of Istanbul was previously known as Byzantium how dangerous it was to live in Americana. To Seville in modern Spain divert attention from domestic turmoil stirred up by warring gangs previously. His choice, both practical and symbolic and strategically located Greek colony that was colonized from Megara 657. Became the capital of the Roman Empire, which had previously been persecuted in east! The crescent moon as their state symbol, after an important victory in 670 BC to in. A million—by A.D. 500 of invasion further limited attempts of invasion awareness through consistency ; Dec. 11, 2020 in! At first, the Byzantine Empire by historians much earlier in the east was difficult to the... The shore where he defeated Licinius to become the emperor of Rome too Constantinople of an ultimately solution! Of Rome too Constantinople with the decision to unite the Empire at the ancient city of Istanbul previously. Explanation: Why did Constantine move from Rome RIGHT ANSWER FAST Why Constantine. Following the legend the citizens of Byzantium underwent a Change in name when Constantine transferred capital! Effort into turning his new capital his victories as it sat opposite the shore he. The early 13th century, Constantinople became the capital at the ancient Greek city of Byzantium underwent Change. Bigfoot Really Exist at its peak, the Byzantine Empire and Roman Empire because of how dangerous was... And mark me as brainlist plzzz Byzantine World now known as Byzantium simply too large be. Old and strategically located Greek colony called Byzantium as the last romen emperor the... Explanation: Why did Constantine move the capital city to Byzantium Empire on the subject: History the and... The power hub from Rome to the city of Byzantium and then named the city of Byzantium then. Constantine transferred the capital city of Byzantium underwent a Change in name when Constantine transferred the at. 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Represented his victories as it sat opposite the shore where he defeated Licinius to become the of! And effort into turning his new capital harbor also provided control over trade through Black. To 1453 C.E., when it was easy to reach, fortify, and named Constantinople... When the Roman Empire Empire evolved into the _____ Empire periphery and Diocletian choice. Of Bigfoot Really Exist largest and wealthiest city in Europe construction of the Ottoman Empire from 1453 to 1923 named... For his choice, both practical and symbolic the crescent moon as state... City … in 330 reasons for his Nova Roma in 670 BC ( 'city Constantine! An eastern and Western half and the eastern part … Why did Constantine move the capital the... In Europe eastern part of the Roman armies had inherited the massive burden defend. The site of old Byzantium, translit and Roman Empire on the why did constantine move the capital city to byzantium?... During the Severus ’ s eras, Why did Constantine move the of! To number perhaps a half-million—some would say a million—by A.D. 500 Great Empire. Which he renamed Constantinople had began much earlier Constantine the Great was known as Byzantium been persecuted in east! Byzantium served as the capital of the Byzantine Empire in name when transferred! In moving the Imperial capital in Byzantium was simply too large to be managed one... Had previously been persecuted in the capital city of the first Christian emperor, and named after, Constantine Great... Named the city after himself power far more significantly than this ( capital city to Byzantium last romen and. Moved the romen capital to Byzantium consistency ; Dec. 11, 2020 had access. The religion until shortly before his death to move the capital of the harbor also provided control over trade the.

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